22 , 2002 Volume 2 Issue 20
The History of Halloween
Next week is Halloween.
So, a change of pace - The History of Halloween.
The origins of Halloween most likely date back more than 2,000 years
to the Celtic festival of Samhain, the Celtic lord of death. The Celts
roamed over what is now the United Kingdom, Ireland and northern France.
Their new year began November 1, starting with a festival the previous
night honoring Samhain to mark the beginning of the season of cold, darkness,
decay and human mortality. The Celts believed Samhain allowed the souls
of the dead to return to their earthly homes on this night.
On the evening of Samhain, the Druids, high priests and teachers of the
Celts, ordered the people to put out their hearth fires and build a huge
New Year's bonfire. Of oak branches, which were considered sacred. The
Druids burned animals, crops and -- according to some historians -- human
beings as sacrifices to Samhain.
Each family then relit its hearth fires from the New Year's bonfire.
During the festivities, costumes made of animal skins were worn. And the
remains of the animals that had been sacrificed were carefully examined
for signs that would foretell the fortunes of the coming year.
The Romans began the conquest of the Celts in 43 A.D. They ruled the
area for about 400 years. During this time, two Roman autumn festivals
were combined with the Celtic festival of Samhain. First was Feralia,
held in late October, honoring the dead. Second a harvest festival named
after Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. Apples later became
associated with Halloween because of this fall festival.
Many of the customs of the Celts survived the introduction of Christianity.
During the 800s, the church established All Saints Day on November 1.
Many old pagan customs became part of this holy day. The mass said on
All Saints' Day was called Allhallowmas. The evening before soon became
known as All Hallows' Eve, or All Hallow e'en.
Regional Halloween customs developed among various groups of Celts. In
Scotland, people paraded through the fields and villages carrying torches
to drive away witches and evil spirits. In Ireland, people paraded in
costumes and begged for food. In Wales every person marked a stone and
put it into a bonfire. The people believed if a person's stone could not
be located the following morning in ashes of the burnt-out fire, they
would die within the year.
In England, Halloween, sometimes called Nutcrack Night or Snap Apple
Night, was celebrated by family members sitting by the fireplace, telling
stories while eating apples, nuts and treats. On All Souls' Day poor people
went a-souling. They received pastries called soul cakes in exchange for
promising to say prayers for the departed.
In the United States, settlers from England and other formerly Celtic
regions brought with them their Halloween customs and beliefs.
If you're in retail, you know the value of Halloween. What a grand thing
You can bring "It IS What's Next!"
to your group
I am ready to share this full and exciting program with you. (Visit It IS What's
Next! -- click here.)
And I'm ready to do it today. To book an hour or two to give you this
different, interesting, meaningful, warm and true action presentation.
To your club. Your company. Your organization. Your association. Any group
you have. At any place. At any time. For any reason.
It IS What's Next! is available to you as a Keynote Address.
As a special program. As an opening or closing presentation. As a different
/ unique session.
This event puts everything into perspective. i.e., people are more important
than "stuff", or "things". It demonstrates what is first in life. What
is first in business. It works at home. It works at the office.
Interested? E-mail me; Ray@RayJutkins.com
and let's make it happen. I look forward to hearing from you. Soon.
A FREE Audio Tape for YOU!
Because Ray Speaks ... it is expected he'll have audio and video tapes.
Why? To share with speakers bureaus, meeting planners and others interested
in what he may have to say. So "yes", there is an audio
tape. And he'll be happy to send you a copy. FREE. No strings attached.
The tape is a selection from several speaking gigs. A few case histories,
some "how to..." ideas. And such. About an hour's worth
of chatter ... some of it actually very entertaining!
If you'd like you very own copy, send an E-mail to ...
with your complete mailing address.
Your tape will be on the way to you within the day.
Oh, when you have a need for a speaker, and feel a demo video tape
could be valuable to you, just ask for a copy. Not much use for video
these days - with the Web - still, we'll be happy to forward one to
Standing still is not the way to get anywhere. Or learn much of anything.
This time Anonymous is an ancient Chinese proverb;
"Be not afraid of going slowly, be only afraid of standing still."
"Quotes with Direction" has been a part of my web site collection
from day one. If you like quotes visit the archives ... www.rayjutkins.com/quotes/.
There's a new batch up every 4 weeks.
... another loose thought
My favorite Englishman shared this. I'm doing the same with you. EnJoy.
English is a peculiar language
By Richard Lederer, author of Crazy English (Pocket Books,1989)
Used with permission.
Eggplants do not contain egg. There is no ham in hamburger. Pineapple
isn't related to pine or apple. English muffins don't come
from England and the French didn't invent french fries. Sweetmeats
are candies. Swetbreads, which are neither sweet nor bread, are meat.
Quicksand is often slow. Boxing rings are square. Guinea pigs are not
from Guinea, and they're not pigs.
Although writers write, fingers don't fing, grocers don't
groce, and hammers don't ham. We have two teeth, but the plural
of booth isn't beeth. One goose, two geese. One moose, two meese?
Sorry. And let's not even think about "index".
In the present tense, teachers teach and preacher preach. Yesterday the
teacher taught, but the preacher didn't praught. I dare you to find
one single annal in the annals of history. And if you throw away all but
one of a group of odds and ends, is the one that remains an odd or an
We say someone is "head over heels", meaning, really, that
they are "heels over head". Despite the fact that something
must go out before it comes back, we talk of going "back and forth".
And no matter how hard you try, you can never make just one "amend"
with an acquaintance.
Vegetarians eat vegetables, which might cause one to keep a close eye
on humanitarians. Each morning my alarm goes off, but when it goes off,
it comes on.
Actors recite lines in a play while musicians play lines at a recital.
We ship goods by truck, but send cargo by ship. Our noses run. Our feet
smell. And, of course, you'd better remember to park on driveway
and drive on parkway. Reverse them and someone will give you a ticket
— but you'll have to pay for it anyway.
A slim chance and a fat chance are synonymous, but a wise man and wise
guy are not. Overlook and oversee are opposites, but quite a lot and quite
a few are similar.
Some concepts are important only in the negative. Nobody would ride in
a horseful carriage or wear a strapful gown. We have no sung heros. Nobody
writes songs about requited love. You've probably never met anyone
who was combobulated, gruntled, ruly, or peccable.
Your house can burn up and burn down simultaneously. Your insurance company
will want you to fill in or fill out a form. It doesn't matter which.
They're the same.
When the stars are out, they are visible; but when the lights are out,
they are invisible. When we make a boat fast, we can lash it to the pier
or cause it to accelerate. When I wind up my watch, I start it; but when
I wind up this essay, I end it.
For more by Richard Lederer, check http://pw1.netcom.com/~rlederer/.
Magic Marketing Minutes
Eye-Flow In A Letter
How do people read your Admail / Direct Mail? Here is what studies show:
- 79% of the people who open your Admail package will look at the P.S.
on your letter first!
Why? Because they want to know who sent them this package. And most
often the letter will give them the answer. So, they look at who signed
the letter - and while they are in that part of the letter, they read
the P.S. They read the P.S. first.
- Then the reader looks at the company letterhead, the company logo
and identification, the company address and phone number. Where did
this come from ... who is sending this to me?
- They next look at their name. Since they've already looked at their
name on the outside of the envelope, they "assume" it is the
same on the inside. But they want to confirm it. They want to confirm
their name and title is correct.
- Next, they read the letter by more or less skim/skipping to the middle
of the page in a "Z" pattern. If you are a copywriter and
feel that your audience was reading every one of your words - I'm sorry
to bust your bubble. People don't read everything we send to them. They
read it in a skim/skip fashion ...back and forth towards the bottom
of the page.
- They then again look at the signature, who signs the letter by both
name and title.
- And, lastly they read the P.S., for a second time.
These are the 6 steps that most people use in reading your letter. Know
this as you write your Direct Mail.